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Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili
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noor2003
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Jamal Albnh
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ibrahem
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dr Mithaq
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د اياد عبد الكريم شكر
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Dr. Hanaa
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المواضيع الأخيرة
» الرجاء المساعدة
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeاليوم في 2:35 am من طرف Dr.Entisar

» اسعار الكلاب في مصر 2019
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالجمعة يونيو 21, 2019 1:01 am من طرف eslamnabil

» للمعرفه
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالجمعة أبريل 12, 2019 9:00 am من طرف Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

» اغتيال الدكتور حسن خنيفس سعيد
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالسبت فبراير 02, 2019 12:16 am من طرف Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

» شهداء الطب البيطري
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالأربعاء يناير 02, 2019 8:37 am من طرف Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

» رسالة صريحة
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالأربعاء أكتوبر 17, 2018 11:45 pm من طرف Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

» مهنة الطبيب البيطري بين الضياع والبطالة
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالأربعاء أكتوبر 17, 2018 11:29 pm من طرف Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

» التحري عن مرض انفلونزا الطيور / الشعبة الوبائية
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالأربعاء أكتوبر 17, 2018 11:00 pm من طرف Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

» اهم ادوية الدواجن
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالجمعة أكتوبر 05, 2018 9:05 pm من طرف عادل ابراهيم زهران

» جواز سفر للكلب
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالإثنين يوليو 10, 2017 11:15 pm من طرف Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

» اهم الامراض المشتركة بين الانسان والحيوان
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالأحد مارس 12, 2017 2:10 pm من طرف مصعب محمد

» تنعي المستشفى
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالجمعة مارس 10, 2017 5:50 pm من طرف د.نعمان

» الشهيد د. حيدر خلف الشمري
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالأربعاء فبراير 08, 2017 5:23 pm من طرف Dr.Hussein Alawsi

» سؤال .... لوسمحتم؟
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالسبت يناير 28, 2017 12:01 am من طرف Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

» العراق اولى بهم ...من الغربة
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالأحد يناير 15, 2017 11:40 pm من طرف Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

المتواجدون الآن ؟
ككل هناك 9 عُضو متصل حالياً :: 0 عضو مُسجل, 0 عُضو مُختفي و 9 زائر :: 2 عناكب الفهرسة في محركات البحث

لا أحد

أكبر عدد للأعضاء المتواجدين في هذا المنتدى في نفس الوقت كان 809 بتاريخ الجمعة سبتمبر 30, 2016 9:05 am
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الدلو عدد المساهمات : 1630
نقاط : 2519
السٌّمعَة : 7
تاريخ الميلاد : 18/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/02/2010
العمر : 59
الموقع : مستوصف الوحدة البيطري

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني   اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني Icon_minitimeالخميس مايو 05, 2011 1:35 pm

أطلس مصور عن تشريح الدواجن
أقدم لكم اليوم زملائي الأعزاء
هذا الأطلس الرائع لتشريح الدواجن
وهو منقول من موقع جامعة كورنيل
مع الشكر الجزيل للزميل الدكتور علاء لاشارته لهذا الموقع لرؤية موضوع الدكتور علاء اضغط هنا

نبدأ عرض الأطلس الذي سيكون عبارة عن صور للتوضع الطبيعي والشكل الطبيعي للأعضاء الداخلية مع الشرح المرافق لها :

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-750f5242fb

With the bird in dorsal recumbency, the walls of the right atrium and ventricle are positioned on top. After death, the atria often expand with blood and can appear quite enlarged. The great vessels can be seen entering the base of the heart. The heart muscle should be reddish-brown in color. A variable amount of fat will be present in the coronary grooves. If the bird is emaciated, this fat may be absent or have undergone serous atrophy, resulting in a gelatinous, wet appearance. Look for any external lesions on the epicardial surface of the heart or on the surrounding fat

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-80a3b58cfc


With the bird in dorsal recumbency, the walls of the right atrium and ventricle are positioned on top. After death, the atria often expand with blood and can appear quite enlarged. The great vessels can be seen entering the base of the heart. The heart muscle should be reddish-brown in color. A variable amount of fat will be present in the coronary grooves. If the bird is emaciated, this fat may be absent or have undergone serous atrophy, resulting in a gelatinous, wet appearance. Look for any external lesions on the epicardial surface of the heart or on the surrounding fat

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-ed84e4bd99



The heart muscle should be reddish-brown in color. A variable amount of fat will be present in the coronary grooves. If the bird is emaciated, this fat may be absent or have undergone serous atrophy, resulting in a gelatinous, wet appearance. Look for any external lesions on the epicardial surface of the heart or on the surrounding fat
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-5bc66c5dba
View of the left side of the heart

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-7757ea69c5
View of the apex of the heart


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-7f1369686e

The bottom 1/3 of the apex of the heart has been removed. This view allows the thickness of the ventricular walls and septum to be assessed. The right ventricular free wall should be approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the thickness of the intraventricular septum and the left ventricular free wall. In the normal heart, the lumina of the ventricles should be small and there should be negligible space between the walls of the ventriculae and the septum. In cardiac diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension or congenital defects, this space will be widened



اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-1e86467f7c



In this view, the chambers of the right atrium and ventricle have been opened by making a cut up the right ventricular free wall. Once opened, the right atrioventricular valve and endocardium are exposed. The septal leaf of the right valve is normally very muscular

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-3508c7b5ba


In this view, the chambers of the left atrium and ventricle have been opened by making a cut up the left ventricular free wall. The left atrioventricular valve is normally thin and smooth

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-0e2ce16772


The aorta has been opened by inserting scissors under the left atrioventricular valve and cutting upward. The normal lumen of the aorta, as seen here, is creamy white and the leaflets of the aortic valve are uniform and very thin

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-5d652bb769




The liver is separated into a right and left lobe, as seen here, attached at the base. The right hepatic lobe is slightly larger than the left and the liver margins should come to a thin crisp edge
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-ff43050ba3

In domestic birds, the left lobe has a fissure running along its surface, dividing it into 2 parts
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-23a7980f6d



The liver is separated into a right and left lobe, as seen here, attached at the base. The right hepatic lobe is slightly larger than the left and the liver margins should come to a thin crisp edge

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-835042ecfb
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-835042ecfb

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-39505a6491


Healthy hepatic parenchyma should be somewhat firm on palpation and have a smooth and glistening appearance. The color of the liver can vary depending on the nutritional state of the bird. Generally, the liver is reddish-brown but it can be light brown or even slightly yellow, depending on the fat content in the diet. However, a very yellow liver is an abnormal finding, except in chicks between 1 to 5 days of age

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-4c52e0706f



Healthy hepatic parenchyma should be somewhat firm on palpation and have a smooth and glistening appearance. The color of the liver can vary depending on the nutritional state of the bird. Generally, the liver is reddish-brown but it can be light brown or even slightly yellow, depending on the fat content in the diet. However, a very yellow liver is an abnormal finding, except in chicks between 1 to 5 days of age

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-1dc7301fab



The gallbladder is located on the visceral surface of the right hepatic lobe. It is normally dark green in color, due to the bile located within the lumen of this thin-walled structure. During autolysis, bile pigments may leak out of the gallbladder, staining the adjacent hepatic tissues yellow to green. This bile inbibition is a normal part of autolysis and should not be confused with a lesion. Similar staining can also occur in the ascending duodenum, adjacent to the area where the bile and pancreatic ducts empty. The size of the gallbladder is variable and may be enlarged in birds that are off-feed

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-a97c7780c3



The gallbladder is located on the visceral surface of the right hepatic lobe. It is normally dark green in color, due to the bile located within the lumen of this thin-walled structure. During autolysis, bile pigments may leak out of the gallbladder, staining the adjacent hepatic tissues yellow to green. This bile inbibition is a normal part of autolysis and should not be confused with a lesion. Similar staining can also occur in the ascending duodenum, adjacent to the area where the bile and pancreatic ducts empty. The size of the gallbladder is variable and may be enlarged in birds that are off-feed

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-12f4d7fdc9

View of the liver on cross section. As seen here, the color and texture should be uniform. Focal or regional changes may indicate a lesion. It’s normal for a small amount of blood to ooze from the cut surface of the liver

__________________


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-45313abc17


The lungs are tightly adhered to the dorsal rib cage. Their color should be bright pink in a fresh bird but will become increasinly more congested, wet, and dark red with autolysis, as seen here. To assess the lungs, do not over-interpret their color but rather, use a combination of visual inspection and palpation to assess the health of this tissue

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-d1e0810384


The air sacs are thin membranes distributed throughout the body. In a fresh healthy bird, air sacs should be transparent but, as seen here, the membranes will become slightly cloudy after death. In over-conditioned birds, fat may be present on the air sac membranes. Inflammation of the air sacs can result in thickened membranes, opacities, or fibrin deposition. Fluid, foam, or exudate can accumulate between the air sac membranes

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-8fdc62d9c8



The proventriculus is the glandular stomach that lies between the esophagus and the gizzard. It is lined with mucosal glands that secrete digestive enzymes important in food break down. On close inspection, these glands can be seen through the serosal surface, giving it a “honeycomb-like� texture. On palpation the proventriculus should feel turgid and, its surface should be shiny tan. Look for abnormalities such as hemorrhagic lesions or neoplastic infiltrates on its surface

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-c0437f3f96


The serosa of the proventriculus is normally shiny, tan, and has a fine vascular pattern. In a fresh bird, on close inspection, the glands can be visualized through the mucosa. The muscular wall of the proventriculus should feel uniformly turgid. Flaccidity or dilatation of the organ might indicate an improper diet or feeding program, infection, or neuromuscular dysfunction. The external features of the ventriculus, or gizzard, should consist of alternating bands of dark red and light red smooth muscles, forming a roughly circular shape. These muscles may be covered by a thick layer of fat, as seen here. On palpation, the gizzard should be extremely firm. Thinning or laxity in the muscles may indicate inflammation, an improper diet or feeding program, or neuromuscular problems

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-7c1c95ec10

The proventriculus in situ
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-6831098551


The serosa of the proventriculus is normally shiny, tan, and has a fine vascular pattern. In a fresh bird, on close inspection, the glands can be visualized through the mucosa. The muscular wall of the proventriculus should feel uniformly turgid. Flaccidity or dilatation of the organ might indicate an improper diet or feeding program, infection, or neuromuscular dysfunction. The external features of the ventriculus, or gizzard, should consist of alternating bands of dark red and light red smooth muscles, forming a roughly circular shape. These muscles may be covered by a thick layer of fat. On palpation, the gizzard should be extremely firm. Thinning or laxity in the muscles may indicate inflammation, an improper diet or feeding program, or neuromuscular problems


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-0479385dc7

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-7fbe8154cf

Close-up of the glands of the proventriculus as seen through the outer wall


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-e9b83a5069

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-ac41d9c233
Close-up view of the glands of the proventriculus as seen from the mucosal surface
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-4c3e0b78cd

The contents of the proventriculus can vary from mucoid and creamy to more formed pieces of ingesta, depending on how recently the bird ate

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-966e0113f1

View of the serosal surface of the proventriculus and gizzard
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-27dbb8d9b2
View of the left side of the proventriculus and gizzard
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-d5dce5afa8


The consistency of the gizzard contents will vary depending on the stage of digestion. Generally, it contains fibers and portions of seeds. Additionally, small pebbles, ingested to facilitate the break up of food, may also be present


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-a0d18fa151

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-c39f859353


The spleen is located dorsal to the gizzard
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-5cdea9c5a7
On very close inspection, the spleen as a slight stippled pattern
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-a78e2021cc

On very close inspection, the spleen as a slight stippled pattern
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-c0313608e9



View of the cut section of the spleen. On cross section, the spleen may appear slightly granular due to the variations in red and white pulp


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-e48fb97b29



The duodenum has a descending and ascending loop, arranged in a U-shape. The loops are held together by a thin strip of mesentery and surround the pancreas. The appearance of the intestine can vary greatly depending on the post-mortem condition of the bird. In a fresh bird, the serosa of a healthy intestine is usually pink, smooth, and glistening. As the post-mortem interval increases, the intestinal walls will become congested, as seen here, and eventually, even a healthy loop of bowel may appear dark red. However, if the serosa has a dull granular appearance, this can be evidence of inflammation. The normal appearance of the pancreas is pale red or slightly yellow. On close inspection, its glandular nature is evident. Swelling of the pancreas can be recognized if the organ extends beyond its normal location between the loops of the duodenum


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-a689028098



The walls of the duodenum should be smooth and uniform and offer little resistance to incision. In the proximal duodenum, the ingesta is normally mucoid and pale tan to yellow. Distal to the bile ducts, the ingesta becomes more green in color
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-3b0aa217d8


The duodenum has a descending and ascending loop, arranged in a U-shape. The loops are held together by a thin strip of mesentery and surround the pancreas. The appearance of the intestine can vary greatly depending on the post-mortem condition of the bird. In a fresh bird, the serosa of a healthy intestine is usually pink, smooth, and glistening. As the post-mortem interval increases, the intestinal walls will become congested, as seen here, and eventually, even a healthy loop of bowel may appear dark red. However, if the serosa has a dull granular appearance, this can be evidence of inflammation. The normal appearance of the pancreas is pale red or slightly yellow. On close inspection, its glandular nature is evident. Swelling of the pancreas can be recognized if the organ extends beyond its normal location between the loops of the duodenum

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-c799100071


The duodenum has a descending and ascending loop, arranged in a U-shape. The loops are held together by a thin strip of mesentery and surround the pancreas. The appearance of the intestine can vary greatly depending on the post-mortem condition of the bird. In a fresh bird, the serosa of a healthy intestine is usually pink, smooth, and glistening. As the post-mortem interval increases, the intestinal walls will become congested, as seen here, and eventually, even a healthy loop of bowel may appear dark red. However, if the serosa has a dull granular appearance, this can be evidence of inflammation. The normal appearance of the pancreas is pale red or slightly yellow. On close inspection, its glandular nature is evident. Swelling of the pancreas can be recognized if the organ extends beyond its normal location between the loops of the duodenum

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-0e60901be6


The normal appearance of the pancreas is pale red or slightly yellow. On close inspection, its glandular nature is evident. Swelling of the pancreas can be recognized if the organ extends beyond its normal location between the loops of the duodenum


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-d471ba9c0c


On close inspection, the pancreas has a fine glandular texture


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-b811e19ddf


After 10 days of age, the only remnant of the yolk sac is a small tag of scar tissue, called Meckel’s diverticulum. This tag, located on the antimesenteric side of the intestine, contains lymphoid tissue and is part of the GALT, or Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue. Meckel’s diverticulum is also an important anatomical landmark, as it is located at the junction between the jejunum and the ileum. Being able to differentiate the jejunum from the ileum is important to generating differentials for intestinal diseases. Some infections, such as coccidiosis, have a predilection for the jejunum and other diseases target the ileum


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-e61976d5c5



After 10 days of age, the only remnant of the yolk sac is a small tag of scar tissue, called Meckel’s diverticulum. This tag, located on the antimesenteric side of the intestine, contains lymphoid tissue and is part of the GALT, or Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue. Meckel’s diverticulum is also an important anatomical landmark, as it is located at the junction between the jejunum and the ileum. Being able to differentiate the jejunum from the ileum is important to generating differentials for intestinal diseases. Some infections, such as coccidiosis, have a predilection for the jejunum and other diseases target the ileum


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-4c2d045cb4


At the junction between the ileum and the descending colon, are two blind-ended sacs known as the ceca. In domestic poultry, the cecae are large structures that bend over themselves, with their apices pointing caudally. The walls should be thin and semi-translucent, allowing the greenish-colored intestinal contents to be visualized within. If the walls are opaque, thin or irregular, infection should be suspected

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-9dbaf87b94



At the junction between the ileum and the descending colon, are two blind-ended sacs known as the ceca. In domestic poultry, the cecae are large structures that bend over themselves, with their apices pointing caudally. The walls should be thin and semi-translucent, allowing the greenish-colored intestinal contents to be visualized within. If the walls are opaque, thin or irregular, infection should be suspected

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-3cac8da7f3

At the base of the ceca, near the junction of the ileum and the descending colon, are 2 important lymphoid structures called cecal tonsils. The tissue here bulges outward slightly as it is thicker and slightly more granular

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-aa30a7e8db


At the base of the ceca, near the junction of the ileum and the descending colon, are 2 important lymphoid structures called cecal tonsils. The tissue here bulges outward slightly as it is thicker and slightly more granular

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-055009a22a


As demonstrated here, the cecal tonsils should be opened and the mucosa examined closely. This is a common location for lesions to be detected. In inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, the tonsils may be come enlarged and mottled red and tan. In some viral infections, the lymphoid tissue may become necrotic, causing the tonsils to become red

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-3eba7cea48

The cecal tonsil has been opened to show the mucosa. It’s important to examine this area closely for lesions. In inflammatory or neoplastic disease, the cecal tonsils may become enlarged and mottled red and tan. In some viral infections, this lymphoid tissue may become necrotic, causing the tonsils to become red


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-bf5cfdfee8



As demonstrated here, the cecal tonsils should be opened and the mucosa examined closely. This is a common location for lesions to be detected. In inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, the tonsils may be come enlarged and mottled red and tan. In some viral infections, the lymphoid tissue may become necrotic, causing the tonsils to become red
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-0c53a96594



The serosa of the ileum should be shiny, tan, and smooth, with no thickening or bulges. Be careful not to over-interpret the color of the intestinal walls as post-mortem congestion and autolysis can quickly turn the intestinal walls red or black. Because the intestinal walls are semi-translucent, look for areas of proliferation or mucosal exudate which can sometimes be visualized through the intestinal wall. At the junction between the ileum and the descending colon, are two blind-ended sacs known as the ceca. In domestic poultry, the cecae are large structures that bend over themselves, with their apices pointing caudally. The walls should be thin and semi-translucent, allowing the greenish-colored intestinal contents to be visualized within. If the walls are opaque, thin or irregular, infection should be suspected

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-2685fafd33


The quality of intestinal ingesta can yield important clues about the functional status of the intestines. If the ingesta is normal, as seen here, regardless of the appearance of the intestinal wall, the intestines were likely functioning normal at the time of death. If the content is abnormal, intestinal dysfunction is present. Keep in mind that as the ingesta moves though the intestines, its color and consistency will change. In the jejunum, pictured here, the ingesta becomes slightly thicker and yellow tan in color

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-568b5c5c92



Distal to the ceca, the intestines continue as a short straight tube known as the descending colon. These walls should be smooth and uniform. Look for any dilatations which may indicate an obstruction due to a mechanical blockage, a scar, or another disease process
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-0fc3eb46d6


The cloaca is the common chamber for the gastrointestinal, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Here the cloaca has been opened. By the time ingesta enters the cloaca, it should have the normal color and consistency of feces and will be mixed with urates from the urinary system


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اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-44cd4916f9


On the dorsal wall of the cloaca is a diverticulum called the Bursa of Fabricius. This structure is an important lymphoid organ. The shape of the bursa varies with species. In the chicken, it is roughly pear shaped. In ducks, geese and turkeys it is more spindle shaped. The size varies with the age of the bird. It typically reaches its maximum size between 4 to 12 weeks of age, at which time it can weigh up to 4 grams. Normally, the bursa begins to involute when the bird is approximately 3 months of age. By the time the bird reaches sexual maturity, it may no longer be evident on gross examination

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-7b42c10ac9


On the dorsal wall of the cloaca is a diverticulum called the Bursa of Fabricius. This structure is an important lymphoid organ. The shape of the bursa varies with species. In the chicken, it is roughly pear shaped. In ducks, geese and turkeys it is more spindle shaped. The size varies with the age of the bird. It typically reaches its maximum size between 4 to 12 weeks of age, at which time it can weigh up to 4 grams. Normally, the bursa begins to involute when the bird is approximately 3 months of age. By the time the bird reaches sexual maturity, it may no longer be evident on gross examination
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-4e516dfb48


On the dorsal wall of the cloaca is a diverticulum called the Bursa of Fabricius. This structure is an important lymphoid organ. The shape of the bursa varies with species. In the chicken, it is roughly pear shaped. In ducks, geese and turkeys it is more spindle shaped. The size varies with the age of the bird. It typically reaches its maximum size between 4 to 12 weeks of age, at which time it can weigh up to 4 grams. Normally, the bursa begins to involute when the bird is approximately 3 months of age. By the time the bird reaches sexual maturity, it may no longer be evident on gross examination

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-29c215c5a3


On the dorsal wall of the cloaca is a diverticulum called the Bursa of Fabricius. This structure is an important lymphoid organ. The shape of the bursa varies with species. In the chicken, it is roughly pear shaped. In ducks, geese and turkeys it is more spindle shaped. The size varies with the age of the bird. It typically reaches its maximum size between 4 to 12 weeks of age, at which time it can weigh up to 4 grams. Normally, the bursa begins to involute when the bird is approximately 3 months of age. By the time the bird reaches sexual maturity, it may no longer be evident on gross examination


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-13002bf900



The vent, located just beneath the tail, is the external orifice of the urinary, genital and gastrointestinal systems. The normal vent is free of fecal and urate staining, swelling, redness, or evidence of trauma

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-ede34293f4



This image shows the normal ovary of a sexually immature female, approximately 10 weeks of age. Here, the ovary is small and inactive

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-a49c7c1a7f

View of the dorsal aspect of the ribs. Note that the ventral ribs have been removed from the field



اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-4e38a966b0




The kidneys consist of a right and left chain, with each chain being made up of 3 lobes. The lobes are tightly embedded in the bone of the synsacrum. They are normally red to dark mahogany brown in color and have a slightly granular texture

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-6bbd515d3d

This image shows a detailed view of the normal texture of the kidneys
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-ca67a65bd9



The nerves should have a creamy-white color and a slightly striated texture on close inspection. This image shows a normal ishiadic plexus in the caudal coelomic cavity


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-e3708a8bef

The thyroid glands should be smooth, oval, and reddish-brown in color. On very close inspection, the thyroid glands have a very fine granular appearance


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-8ec7a16843


A properly formed beak, shown here, is bilaterally symmetrical and the upper and lower halves should form a smooth line where they articulate
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-161ed2b107



A properly formed beak is bilaterally symmetrical and the upper and lower halves should form a smooth line where they articulate. Nutritional imbalances may result in beak malformations. The color of the beak depends on the bird’s coloration, with lighter birds typically having yellow beaks. However, beak color can also be influenced by physiologic factors. For example, yellow pigment in the beak may be lost as the chicken produces more eggs


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-1ac7c10087



The oropharynx should be examined for any lesions. Note that birds do not have a soft palate or a discrete boundary between the oral cavity and the pharynx. The color of the oral mucosa will vary with lighter birds tending to have a pink mucosa while darker birds will have more pigment. Look for ulcers, erosions, opacities, diptheritic nodules, or other lesions
اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-d90e3f8cee


A bird’s tongue is supported by the hyobranchial apparatus, making it somewhat inflexible

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-2aaaffe20e



The dorsal surface of the chicken tongue should be smooth and pink. There is a row of large papillae near the caudal attachment of the tongue. Inspect the tongue for any lesions such as ulcers or nodules

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-e5bc731b35




The dorsal surface of the chicken’s tongue is smooth and there is a row of large papillae near the caudal attachment. When inspecting the tongue, look for ulcers and erosions


اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-4567bd2cde




On the roof of the oropharynx is a fissure, called the choana, which opens into the nasal cavity. Inspect the area around the choana for ulcers. The choana is also a good place to find respiratory exudate. Birds do not form liquid pus and inspusated exudate tends to accumulate in the choanal orifice. If exudate is present, you can collect a swab sample from the choana. The choana is surrounded by ridges and rows of sharp well-demarcated papillae that point caudally. A variety of diseases can damage the papillae, resulting in blunting



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اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 5aleeg-4b1203be8f




Just caudal to the choana is the infundibular cleft. This is the opening to the Eustachian tube and it is surrounded by ridges and rows of sharp well-demarcated papilla that point caudally

منقووول
مع تحيات دكتور ابراهيم
انتهى بعون الله



_________________
من السهل أن تحب الناس ولكن من الصعب أن تجبر الناس على حبك

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 572205141400778481981
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili
المدير العام ...Director-General of the site
المدير العام ...Director-General of the site
Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

الحمل عدد المساهمات : 4336
نقاط : 5740
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تاريخ الميلاد : 13/04/1962
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/08/2009
العمر : 57

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الدكتور ابراهيم المحترم
تحية تقدير واحترام
جهد رائع جدا ....عاشت الايادي

متمنيا لكم دوام الصحة والعافية

تقبلوا مروري اخي الكريم

اخوكم
د.مهند الوائلي

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 36720380

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اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 22222210
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ibrahem
طبيب بيطري/عضو الجمعية الطبية البيطرية العراقية
طبيب بيطري/عضو الجمعية الطبية البيطرية العراقية
ibrahem

الدلو عدد المساهمات : 1630
نقاط : 2519
السٌّمعَة : 7
تاريخ الميلاد : 18/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/02/2010
العمر : 59
الموقع : مستوصف الوحدة البيطري

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استاذي الكريك دكتور مهند المحترم
شكرا لمرورك الكريم مانشرته الا هو جزء متواضع لخدمة المنتدى
تحياتي وشكرا

_________________
من السهل أن تحب الناس ولكن من الصعب أن تجبر الناس على حبك

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 572205141400778481981
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili
المدير العام ...Director-General of the site
المدير العام ...Director-General of the site
Dr. Mohannad Al-Waili

الحمل عدد المساهمات : 4336
نقاط : 5740
السٌّمعَة : 84
تاريخ الميلاد : 13/04/1962
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/08/2009
العمر : 57

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اخي العزيز د.ابراهيم المحترم
والله يااخي انت السباق دائما لخدمة زملائك ومسعاك واضح ومشرق لخدمة المنتدى
بارك الله فيك
مشكور اخي لردك السريع

تقبل مني وافر الاحترام
اخوك
د.مهند الوائلي

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اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 22222210
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ibrahem
طبيب بيطري/عضو الجمعية الطبية البيطرية العراقية
طبيب بيطري/عضو الجمعية الطبية البيطرية العراقية
ibrahem

الدلو عدد المساهمات : 1630
نقاط : 2519
السٌّمعَة : 7
تاريخ الميلاد : 18/02/1960
تاريخ التسجيل : 02/02/2010
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الموقع : مستوصف الوحدة البيطري

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استاذي الكريم دكتور مهند
السلام عليكم
تبقى انت استاذنا ومعلمنا والفضل يعود لكم بانشاءهذا المنتدى الرائع الذي من خلاله استطعنا نشر ماهو مفيد ويخدم مهنة الطب البيطري وايظا من خلال هذا المتدى استطعنا على التعرف على جنابكم الكريم وزملائنا الاطباء الذي افتقدناهم من زمن طويل لكم مني كل الود والتقدير والاحترام

_________________
من السهل أن تحب الناس ولكن من الصعب أن تجبر الناس على حبك

اطلس تشريح الدواجن الجزء الثاني 572205141400778481981
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Jamal Albnh
طبيب بيطري عراقي
طبيب بيطري عراقي


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شكرا لكم استاذنا الفاضل دكتور ابراهيم سليم المحترم على هذا الموضوع القيم وبارك الله بجميع جهودك الجباره وفقكم الله..تحياتي واشواقي
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
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